About Me

My photo
I saw active service in conventional, clandestine and covert units of the South African Defence Force. I was the founder of the Private Military Company (PMC) Executive Outcomes in 1989 and its chairman until I left in 1997. Until its closure in 1998, EO operated primarily in Africa helping African governments that had been abandoned by the West and were facing threats from insurgencies, terrorism and organised crime. EO also operated in South America and the Far East. I believe that only Africans (Black and White) can truly solve Africa’s problems. I was appointed Chairman of STTEP International in 2009 and also lecture at military colleges and universities in Africa on defence, intelligence and security issues. Prior to the STTEP International appointment, I served as an independent politico-military advisor to several African governments. Until recently, I was a contributing editor to The Counter Terrorist magazine. All comments in line with the topics on this blog are welcome. As I consider this to be a serious look at military and security matters, foul language and political or religious debates will not be entertained on this blog.

Wednesday, April 10, 2019


(This is neither a media statement nor an invitation for party political rhetoric)

(Adapted from a talk I gave at the Rooiplaas gathering on 6 April 2019)

South Africa’s national security ought to be above petty party politics. Unfortunately, it is not.
I believe that many people in our government, and indeed most of our citizens, are unaware of the fact that, as a country, we are being targeted by Fourth Generation Warfare (FGW). I wrote about this phenomenon in my book Composite Warfare under the heading of 4th Evolution of Warfare.
I hope that I am wrong but what I see unfolding is not merely a clash between different ideologies but a concerted effort to bring about the collapse of the country. This will impact negatively on every citizen of the country regardless of colour, language, and religion, and unless there is dedicated, driven, and urgent intervention—supported by all political parties—the momentum will merely build up over time and will become increasingly difficult to stop.
Like any other conflict in Africa, FGW is about influence, interests, power, and resources.
FGW is characterised by the following:

1. It is multidimensional in nature and of long term duration. The build-up is gradual and its escalates over time
2. It includes acts of armed action, terror, sabotage, violent protests, and violent crimes driven by different ideologies that act as the glue holding it all together
3. Its support base is decentralised, and it (usually) enjoys covert financial support
4. It is a direct attack on a target’s culture, past, style of governance, and its support base, and includes attacks on—and the wanton murder of—civilians
5. Hate-speech is a vital component of this type of warfare as it adds to anger, division, tension, militancy, and hatred
6. It is a highly sophisticated psychological warfare and propaganda campaign conducted through mainstream and social media manipulation, internet/cyber warfare, internet trolls, and bots
7. All potential targets are placed under pressure ie political, economic, governance, social, law enforcement, and military. This is to create the perception that the government’s security forces are either unable or unwilling to intervene, or that they cannot be trusted to secure the populace
8. It contains threats of punishment, violence and/or sanction against any person or party that wishes to intervene or counter its end-goal. This will usually be driven by a small but vocal group of people who will use a distortion of both history and facts to justify and propagate their militancy. In this process of created anger, they will threaten to resort to an armed uprising  
9. It occurs in conflicts that are usually low intensity in nature and includes participants from all political and ideological sides
10. Non-participants (the populace) present the security forces with strategic, operational, and tactical dilemmas, but to the proponents of FGW, the populace standing between them and the government/security forces are merely collateral damage
11. It lacks an apparent and defined hierarchy
12. It appears small in size, but uses a vast and all-inclusive network of communication, media coverage, soft power, and financial support
13. It employs the use of tactics such as violent organised crime, violent and destructive protests, sabotage of state infrastructure, threats to disrupt and/or erode the health services, industry and food security, and even terrorism and small guerrilla actions.
14. Political warfare plays a large role in FGW to breakdown resistance.

Many of the above characteristics are already very visible in our political landscape.
I believe we are where we are as we do not have a coherent and realistic National Security Strategy to advise, support, strengthen, and guide our National Strategy. If a strategy is good but cannot be implemented, it is a waste of time and effort—and it gives the initiative to the bad guys.
Sadly, as seen from the recent report on our state intelligence services (SSA report), the SSA became a fiefdom and partisan intelligence organisation aimed at protecting personal interests instead of collecting intelligence on national interests. This placed us on a very dangerous trajectory of strategic failure. It has also eroded the pillars of state to such an extent that they are close to collapse.
This can only be turned around by reassessing these strategies, stopping the divisive and violent political rhetoric that is taking place, and re-establishing the rule of law. Just these few actions will go a long way in partly negating the political warfare/FGW campaign that is currently unfolding. Unless we do that, we will continue sinking.
As a result of these failures, the President can be likened to a ship’s captain that has a blind navigator. He knows where he wants to go but won’t be able to get there as the navigator has no clue where the map is, and he cannot see the iceberg that is rapidly approaching.

Monday, September 10, 2018


(Please note that racist, party political, and religious comments will be deleted)

This is the only country most of us have. If we don’t work at making it a success, we are digging our own premature grave.
Given what appears to be the increasingly fragile political trajectory we have now embarked on, it is increasingly difficult to remain optimistic and positive about this great country’s future. Government plans and policies aimed at promoting progress are countered, stifled, and denigrated by ruling and opposition party members alike. Calls for anarchy are becoming the order of the day as lesser political parties are given major media play. The silent majority in our country are muzzled as their words carry no weight. The voiceless remain without a voice. Yet the silent majority and voiceless are the prime victims of the unfolding chaos.
I have always maintained that I would rather be part of an imperfect solution than a forced participant in a civil war. Yet, it seems that many across the political, racial, and religious divide are calling for exactly that—armed conflict within our own borders. Their calls are increasingly and disturbingly gaining traction, not only from the uneducated, impoverished, those who have lost hope, and those that were misled with false promises, but also from senior political figures and perception creators who are intimating ‘blood must flow’.
To prepare for the bloodletting, some political parties and minority groups have already established so-called ‘military wings’. Others have already begun stockpiling weapons and ammunition…
The reality is that the political clock cannot be turned backwards. Nor can it be fast-forwarded without considering the chaos and uncertainty it can create.
What is cause for some concern is that those who seem to be calling for an immediate fast-forward to encourage conflict and war in our country, have very little to no idea what they are truly calling for. I doubt they have walked through the figurative rivers of blood, or seen and smelled the bloated bodies of the dead.
Perhaps they should be sent to DRC, Libya, Nigeria, Niger, South Sudan, or Somalia to get some sense….
When one reads, hears, or sees the daily news, regardless which medium is used, it is obvious the calls for an armed uprising are steadily increasing. The snowball effect an armed uprising brings to South Africa is a lack of domestic and foreign investment, destruction of the country and its infrastructure along with property, the killing of fellow-citizens—and ultimately, national bankruptcy and abject failure. The rhetoric that is currently being spouted by the conflict callers and false prophets of doom, complete with ‘false facts’, is adding to the looming chaos.
The path from ‘reasonable economic and political stability’ to state fragility is gathering momentum, and is being fuelled on a daily basis. The lessons of history have conveniently been ignored by those who should know better—but don’t.
In my book ‘Composite Warfare’, I listed what I believe to be the most common drivers and elements that constitute a fragile state, and I believe we are either very close, or have already arrived there. Not only that, our fragility is gathering momentum and leading us headlong towards a failed state. Indeed, several elements of a failed state have already manifested themselves.
State departments, municipalities, state-owned enterprises, and large critical service providers are collapsing and, in some instances, have already collapsed. Coupled to this sorry state of affairs, corruption, blatant theft, financial mismanagement (another term for theft), industrial action and sabotage, a shrinking economy, rising unemployment, organised crime, incompetence, protests, strikes and violent marches, hate speech, and more, have simply added to the steady degradation of the Pillars of State. Our falling currency does not help matters.
Paid-for services can no longer be expected—instead, one is deemed fortunate if they are indeed even delivered. Taxpayers are being slowly choked to death or forced to leave the country. Others are driven away by an increasing crime wave. The homes of those that can afford it are now secured by walls, gates, electric fencing, cameras, dogs, and private security guards.
Every traffic light hides a potential ambush, carjacking, or robbery. Political rhetoric has successfully divided the country along economic, racial, and tribal lines. The sense of entitlement that has permeated our society is now considered the new norm. In fact, ‘entitlement’ has become institutionalised.
Our Constitution has become a document that holds no value to some. All constitutions are occasionally subjected to debates, reviews, and changes, but to rewrite elements thereof to suit a specific political narrative is a folly that will result in massive political and economic aftershocks, and upheaval.
Attempts by the Presidency to halt this mess and restore order are being met with fierce resistance by those whose who appointed themselves the sole beneficiaries of the country’s wealth. The very emotive issue of land has become a major political stage that is being exploited by all sides.
Over the past weeks I have watched us slide deeper towards chaos. It has also made me realise that attempts at finding a solution are rapidly becoming wishful thinking.
Whereas governments may come and go, the State remains. We seem to be heading towards a failed state that will need to cope with generational and institutionalised damage. I have no desire to be living in a failed state. And unless drastic government intervention is exercised, it seems it is no longer a matter of ‘if’ but of ‘when’.
It is no wonder that so many beyond our borders and our shores view us as an overripe banana republic, where some are even trying to steal its bruised skin.  

Monday, August 20, 2018


A rising tide of violent crime, a lot of it perpetrated by children and teenagers—themselves often the victims of violence at home, or under peer pressure, or under the influence of alcohol and drugs—has resulted in many blaming the failure of law enforcement agencies, the schools, and the government. Few parents are willing to point the finger at themselves. However, parenting comes with numerous responsibilities, as no child asked to be brought into this world.

Crimes committed by minors are not unique to South Africa—it seems to be an escalating international trend, if one is to believe numerous foreign publications and reports. Murder, rape, robbery, arson, stabbings, lack of respect, vandalism, and so forth, seem to increasingly be the order of the day.
In Africa, numerous armed anti-government forces make extensive use of children. Minors are either forced to join their ranks, or kidnapped into a life of armed conflict to serve as spies, ‘soldiers’, load carriers, prostitutes, and such like. Others are coerced into becoming suicide bombers.
A Ugandan academic recently compared the children recruited to serve in the gangs on the Cape flats to ‘child soldiers’. Not surprisingly, they bear many similarities to the child soldiers running around across Africa, and causing mayhem with a large degree of impunity.
Minors commit their crimes with no conscience or indeed accountability. Some do so as a result of peer pressure. Others are attracted to a life of ‘glamourous violence’ such as they see on TV; they want to become criminals as it gives them a ‘family identity’, a ‘uniform’, a sense of belonging, and the bling that goes with being a gangster.
With little to no education, and trapped in a cycle of ongoing violence—coupled to an increasingly high rate of unemployment, dysfunctional families,  and a loss of hope (especially in impoverished communities), these child-gangsters opt for a life of violent crime, with the misguided belief that it will stand them in good stead and improve their quality of life. In some instances, their decision is driven to initially survive. Ultimately it gives them power over people.
Yet, a life of crime can also lead to a very short life. Some get killed, and others end up in a bad space. Those who wish to walk away from the gangs they belong to, face almost certain violent retaliation at the hands of those they intend to abandon—or possibly compromise.
These young criminals have no fear of the police, the laws of the land, or the communities they reside in. Life and property are merely there—and theirs—to be taken. They have also learned that ‘crime does pay’—a view that motivates others to join the on-going crime spree, and this merely accelerates the growth of the child gangster phenomenon. This form of ‘violent entitlement’ is gathering its own momentum and will become increasingly difficult to stop.
By the time most of these child gangsters reach adulthood, they are already hardened criminals. 
We are quick to blame the failures of law enforcement on containing this ever-growing problem. Yet, the law enforcement failures—of which there are many—cannot be blamed solely on the policemen who serve.
Law enforcement officers are a reflection of the society they represent, but they also reflect how and what they are trained to do. In some instances, they also represent the crime syndicates.  This has resulted in many people losing faith in the South African Police Service. There are some policemen that are willing participants of crime, but not all of them are. This has, however, resulted in these young criminals either being protected by corrupt police officers, or developing a misguided sense of entitlement with no fear of legal or judicial action against them. This merely accelerates the growth of child gangsters.
Our education system, as broken, eroded, and withered as it is, is there to supposedly teach our children, and prepare them as the future leaders of South Africa. Like all things, education starts at home and it is here that discipline, manners, and respect for self and others ought to be imprinted—not only at school. Schools should desist from propagating politics, and should instead focus on education. But a crumbling educational system with a dire shortage of qualified teachers is increasingly unable to prepare the youth for the future.
Government also has a role to play in this growing problem. It has not done much to stimulate the economy, incentivise businesses and entrepreneurs, or allay the investor and citizen fears it has helped to create. It must act decisively against crime and violence. Its daily failures with regard to collapsed municipalities, degrading infrastructure, and an ever-decreasing interest in its people, are well known. Its actions have, in addition, strangled taxpayers and degraded business enterprises. This has created a shrinking economy and rising unemployment. Unemployment, and a loss of hope and income are the breeding grounds for criminality.
The role parents ought to play in the development of a responsible human being can never be overlooked. Many parents are so busy trying to survive in very difficult economic times, and they tend to become so focussed on family survival that they neglect their parental duties.
According to a recent assessment of violence, more than 70% of children have witnessed violence, either at home or elsewhere, have been the victims of crime, or know someone who has been impacted by crime. What does that tell us about the country’s future leaders?
With poor or no education, trapped in a cycle of poverty, and an evolving history of crime and violence, things are unlikely to improve.
Unless there is urgent intervention on many levels, we are setting up our country’s future—and that of our children—for a spectacular failure.  

Monday, April 23, 2018


It is very evident that there are people—and civil leaders—from across the political spectrum that are intent on ensuring that divisive politics, crime, militancy, and racial and religious tensions are fuelled, and anger and dissent encouraged. Social media platforms and some mainstream media outlets are increasingly being abused, used, and exploited, to convey disinformation, lies, and hate speech.
Social media abounds with official looking documents, along with dated photographs and video clips (often ‘posed’), sometimes accompanied by voice notes, and is being used by opposites across the political spectrum to further the aims, agendas, intentions, and false narratives of those who are sowing the seeds of panic and calling for an armed uprising in South Africa.
Perhaps they believe that our country would be better off if it ended up looking like Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Syria, or Yemen?  Perhaps they ought to read the story of agent ‘Curveball’ and how his disinformation, lies, and fake intelligence resulted mass damage, death, and destruction in Iraq? Elsewhere, the story is much the same…Is this the ends they are working for?
Many of those who continue to call for confrontation, conflict, and war, probably have very little to no clue what an armed uprising and civil war truly involves. ‘Opinion makers’ should desist from hoping and wishing for conflict and civil war—they might just discover too late that their hopes and wishes have become reality as every action has an (often unequal) opposite reaction: this calls for thinking before speaking or writing.
People should be wary who they accept their ‘news’ from. Blind acceptance of what we hear or read makes us mere sheep in the eyes of those driving the destructive agendas and narratives.
Even more surprisingly is that some people believe that some ‘foreign ally’ will rush in to save the country when it is burning. It is time to seriously readjust that thinking as it is both foolish and delusionary—especially as some of these ‘foreign allies’ are aiding and abetting the growth of conflict in our country.
It is perfectly understandable that not all of us share the same political, racial, or religious ideals, or view life through the same prism. We all have our own unique views regarding ethnicity, language, race, religion, politics, and so forth—after all, that is what makes us who we are.
To merely watch and wring one’s hands, and allow the problems to take their (usually) criminal and destructive course is to transform evil and hooliganism into a ‘legitimate’ worse. It is equally irresponsible and criminal to fuel the flames of these lies, and feed the destructive narrative.
Taking up arms may be one way of resolving the many problems we face but it is the most devastating option of all—and many of us have witnessed first-hand the devastation this brings. But, there are other options available—if only we are willing to look for them.
Many mainstream and armchair journalists seldom disseminate ‘real news’. Instead, they create lies or ‘fake news’ to create negativism, demoralise people, fuel anger and hatred, and impart (or rather try to force) their warped opinions, views, and beliefs on others. After all, they need to protect the narrative they propagate.
Many others swallow these deceptions and lies, and pass it on to anyone who is willing to read or listen to them—after adding their own spin, opinions and views to increase the fakeness under the guise of ‘truth’.
Fanning the flames of conflict and war by blaming everyone else for our woes, and blaming the past for our present failures, is nothing short of refusing to take responsibility for our current position.
It is said that when lies become the truth, there can be no turning back.
We only have one country and we all have a responsibility to ensure that we do not go down the path of conflict and war.
I would rather be part of an imperfect solution than part of the massive and destructive problem—where there will be no winner.

Friday, April 13, 2018


The book ‘Executive Outcomes: Against all Odds’ was finally signed off this morning and is due to go to print.
Revising and updating the book was a bumpy and at times, a painful journey. However, a great editor and an understanding publisher made it easier to finally reach the end of the road. I am happy with the final result, and I hope the men who served the company so loyally will also be pleased with the end result. Obviously, it was not possible to mention everyone by name who served in the company, but those who served know who they are. They can be justly proud of what they achieved.
The book (770 pages) contains a lot of new information and photographs. It not only covers the contracts EO engaged in, but also a lot of new information on the devious role played by elements of Military Intelligence, and their lackeys—including some very unethical journalists who used their poison-pens to further their own personal agendas. The double-dealing of our politicians of that time, and their efforts to deceive the South African public, is also discussed.  
The cover of the book was changed as the publisher felt it necessary to break from previous covers—including a book written by someone else that used virtually the same cover.
My thanks to everyone who encouraged and supported me in getting to the end of this road. My thanks too to the Military Intelligence officers who found the courage to come clean and finally speak to me.
I truly hope that the book will finally lay to rest the many ghosts of the past and expose the false and misleading ‘intelligence’ and ‘news’ for the lies they were.

Friday, January 19, 2018


My sincere thanks to everyone for the interest shown in the Executive Outcomes reprint as well as the encouragement I got to complete it, and despite numerous set-backs, it was finally done.
I recently signed off on the preliminary cover for the EO book which was done by Anthony Cuerden of Flying Ant Designs (www.flyingant.co.za). Although there are one or two smallish changes that need to be made, the cover will pretty much look as shown hereunder. I think Anthony did an excellent job.
The reprint is very different from the first publication by Galago as a lot more information—such as recently surfaced MI and DFA lies and deception, the duplicity of the South African government at that time and its desire to support a Maoist organisation at the cost of young South African lives, the use of state funds for private gain, and more—has been added.
The book was also extensively reedited by Marisa Robson (https://www.facebook.com/marisa.cronje), who did an excellent job fixing, questioning, reading and rereading the draft, and making sure things read right.
If all goes well, the book should be available in bookstores around the end of February, early March 2018.

I am told that there has been great interest in the hardcover books (100 with a commemorative EO coin and 100 without the commemorative coin). Obviously, the hardcover books, all numbered and signed, will be more costly that the soft cover books. The hardcover books will only be available through Piet Fourie’s Bush War Books site (www.warbooks.co.za). 

Wednesday, May 17, 2017


In the aftermath of 9/11, the bread and butter of the defense industry shifted in many ways from focusing on big-ticket Cold War items like tanks and fighter jets to the world of counterterrorism and counterinsurgency. With this new paradigm came waves and waves of self-appointed experts, clueless academics, and hucksters trying to sell crap to the Department of Defense. This trend continues to this day, although it has been shifting into the even more nebulous area of cybersecurity, which is even better for contractors given that the 60-year-old men who run the Pentagon don’t know anything about computers. The situation is so bad in the Department of Defense that when you come across an “expert” who dubs themselves a COINista, you should run, not walk, away. These folks are the reason why we are fighting the same war today that we were fighting in Afghanistan 16 years ago.

One person who I always appreciated for having an actual track record of success is Eeben Barlow. Having served in the South African Defense Forces as a sapper in the Infantry and Special Operations, Barlow went on to found a private military company called Executive Outcomes. EO beat back UNITA in Angola for the democratically elected government before driving the barbarous Revolutionary United Front to their knees in Sierra Leone. Today, Barlow serves as the chairman of STTEP, a PMC that took the fight directly to Boko Haram. Oddly, the United States government puts pressure on the host governments to remove Barlow’s people just as they begin experiencing success in defeating anti-government forces.

Using his background in counterinsurgency and irregular warfare, Barlow has recently written a book titled “Composite Warfare,” and it is the go-to manual for warfare in Africa, written by a man who has experienced it. Barlow emphasizes an Africa-centric approach that eschews the over-philosophizing of political scientists, doctrine writers, and alleged COIN experts. Barlow wrote the book to pertain specifically to war on the African continent, but in this reader’s opinion, Barlow’s stripped-down language and no-nonsense approach to what is a normally convoluted subject in military literature makes this book worthwhile for any student of military history.

As Barlow writes in his book, “Part of the dilemma African armies face is the continued creation of new words, terms, and phrases to describe the same action or phenomena. This has led to a large amount of confusion for commanders and leader in the field.” Using graphics, bullet points, and written explanations, the author leads the reader to an understanding about the boots-on-the-ground tactical approach, from movement techniques and types of operations to the big picture that supports the pillars of government. “Composite Warfare” ties them together and demonstrates how a military campaign has to function as a mutually supporting effort that supports the state rather than undermines it.

Comprehensive in nature, “Composite Warfare” examines appropriate force structures, air power, reconnaissance, maneuvers, mobility, air power, intelligence, retrograde operations, developing military strategies, and plenty more. Barlow treats warfare in Africa with a cultural appreciation, as opposed to a cookie-cutter, one-size-fits-all approach frequently employed by U.S. Special Forces, who simply mirror our own force structure in the host nation counterparts they train. This is why the United States often trains foreign troops with tactics straight out of the Ranger Handbook, tactics that don’t work for indigenous forces.

In a past SOFREP interview with Barlow, he said that “poor training, bad advice, a lack of strategy, vastly different tribal affiliations, ethnicity, religion, languages, cultures, not understanding the conflict and enemy,” were hallmarks of Western training provided to African armies. “Much of this training is focused on window-dressing, but when you look through the window, the room is empty,” he concluded.

“Composite Warfare” is recommended reading for students of military history and strategy, including active-duty Special Forces soldiers charged with conducting Foreign Internal Defense (FID). Although the book will prove especially helpful to those serving in African militaries, “Composite Warfare” will no doubt became a seminal work on modern warfare in Africa, one practitioners and academics alike will reference well into the decades to come. Let us hope that Barlow’s lessons are learned and internalized, lest we repeat the same mistakes in Africa for another half-century.